India, Mathura, Late Kushan Period / Seated Buddha / 3rd centuryIndia, Mathura, Late Kushan Period
Seated Buddha
3rd century

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Creator Nationality: Asian; Indian Sub-Continent; Indian
Creator Name-CRT: India, Mathura, Late Kushan Period
Title: Seated Buddha
Title Type: Primary
View: Full View
Creation Start Date: 200
Creation End Date: 299
Creation Date: 3rd century
Object Type: Sculpture
Classification Term: Sculpture-stone
Materials and Techniques: red mottled sandstone
Dimensions: Overall: 63cm x 58.5cm
AMICA Contributor: The Cleveland Museum of Art
Owner Location: Cleveland, Ohio, USA
ID Number: 1941.94
Credit Line: Edward L. Whittemore Fund
Style or Period: India, Mathura, Late Kushan Period
Context: The kapardin-type Buddha image that was prevalent during the first half-century of the first Kaniska era (c. 78-130) was replaced in the second half of that century by a Buddha image that evolved under strong Gandharan influence. This style has a direct bearing on the development of the Buddha images of the later Mathura school.This sculpture falls into the period that follows the Gandharan influence in the Mathrua school and it represents the style that flourished in Mathura in the second Kaniska era (from 177-3rd Century). The Buddha is seated in the dhyanasana position, on a plain base. His proper left arm supports the monastic robe, which cascades in a zigzag pattern. The right arm, now missing, almost certainly was in abhaya mudra. The head, unfortunately, is also missing.The body is clad in an opaque sanghati, worn over both shoulders and concealing all but the general outlines of the body. Its folds are arranged in symmetrical parabolic lines recalling those of the Buddha images made in Mathura during the period of Gandharan influence. The treatment of the folds is quite distinct, consisting of raised ridges with rounded edges, string-like in conception, rather than the groove-like articulation of drapery present in earlier sculpture. Other characteristics of the later period are the legs uncovered from just below the knees, the stylized array of pleats formed by the undergarment emerging from under the ankles and the mechanical zigzagging pattern of the drapery held in the left hand.These characteristics place this sculpture in the second Kaniska era, but not beyond the Kusana period. The garments in their convention are still Kusana, as are the heavy, massive proportions of the sculpture. Although certain formal qualities herald the evolved images of the Gupta period, this image still lacks the distinctive plasticity of Gupta sculpture. While transitional, the Kusana characteristics remain dominant over the emerging Gupta qualities.
AMICA ID: CMA_.1941.94
AMICA Library Year: 2000
Media Metadata Rights: Copyright, The Cleveland Museum of Art

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