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Creator Nationality: Asian; Indian Sub-Continent; Indian
Creator Dates/Places: India
Creator Active Place: India
Creator Name-CRT: India, Gandhara, probably Peshawar area, Kusana Period
Title: Standing Sakyamuni
Title Type: Primary
View: Full View
Creation Start Date: 150
Creation End Date: 199
Creation Date: 2nd half of the 2nd Century
Creation Place: Gandhara
Object Type: Sculpture
Materials and Techniques: Gray schist
Dimensions: Overall: 119.7cm
AMICA Contributor: The Cleveland Museum of Art
Owner Location: Cleveland, Ohio, USA
ID Number: 1972.43
Credit Line: Gift of Morris and Eleanor Everett in memory of Flora Morris Everett
Style or Period: Kusana Period
Context: The invasion led by Alexander the Great in the late fourth century BC resulted in the settelment of Bactria, India's northwestern province. It gave the beginning to a classical style that, centuries later, developed into Gandhara art, which flourished through the first three centuries of the Christian era. This Hellenistic and, later, Roman styles left a deep mark on Indian sculpture. This sculpture provides a perfect example of the results. Large detached images of buddhas are characteristic of the advanced phase of Gandhara art. The early stage was represented primarily by small narrative reliefs with scenes from the life of the Historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, which decorated Buddhist monuments in profusion. With the growing popularity of Mahayana Buddhism, when the demand for an icon was created, large detached images were executed and placed in shrines, niches, and courtyards of Buddhist monasteries. There are two basic types of buddha images: standing and seated. Buddha wears a sanghati (monastic garment), which in most of the standing images covers both shoulders. In the seated figures it is sometimes worn only over the left shoulder. The lower hem of the garment reveals the antaravasaka (undergarment). The hands are in standard positions: the right one raised to the chest level, expressing an abhaya mudra (blessing or reassurance); the left one, extended along the body, holding the hem of the monastic garment. The posture of Shakyamuni is relaxed, with the left leg slightly bent at the knee and moving forward. The garment, draped in a fashion that recalls Greco-Roman sculpture, follows the contours of the body underneath. Both the transparency of the clothing and the tendency to model the body are predominant in the advanced Gandhara style. At thesame time, this sculpture displays a high usnisa, wide-open eyes, a moustache, and a moderately large halo--characteristics associated with the earlier Gandhara style--indicating that the second half of the second century AD is the most likely date for this figure. S.C.
AMICA ID: CMA_.1972.43
AMICA Library Year: 1998
Media Metadata Rights:
Copyright, The Cleveland Museum of Art
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